Oh Dear

My head’s in the clouds,
My head’s in the clouds once again

I’m looking, but I’m not really looking
I’m listening, but I’m not really listening
To anyone or anything around me.

‘Cause I’m not even sure why I’m here,
Oh dear,
I’m here again.

My head’s up in the clouds once again,
Mhmmmmmm

It seems that everyday, I struggle through the same pain
Of living life once again
A circle spiraling
Over and over,
Once again.
I’m here again.

Mhmmmmmm

Now my head’s in the clouds
My head is up in the clouds once again.
My dear,
My baby, oh dear.

Are you looking, are you really looking
Or listening
To anyone or anything around you?

When your head’s in the clouds,
When your head’s up there in the clouds
There’s nothing and nowhere.
Just time and space,
Between you and I,
Just ‘being’
Up in the clouds once again,
My dear, oh dear.

Optimising to Form a Self-Sustainable Global System

ABSTRACT

 

The current form of government has, over time, shown detrimental effects to the global ecosystem. It has resulted in many global crises such as global warming, exacerbation of impoverished nations, political abuse, increase in population depression, unemployment, and cultural tension. Although it has improved the lives of many, it has simultaneously worsened the lives of the less fortunate; a concept further emphasized through societal isolation. Firstly, humans have evolved into a living species that are far from our predecessors. We are conscientious beings that are capable of being empathetic towards almost anything, regardless of; inter-alia, race, religion, and animal species. One example is the growing popularity of vegetarianism, regardless of religion, and our constant battle for animal rights. The primary hierarchy of power (a pyramid or a house of cards), with the most powerful at the top, can now be seen irrelevant where the faults are evident from the concept of primalism. Unlike many aspects of our human lives, the principles of trade and currency has not ‘grown’ except for methods to increase efficiency. This lack of evolution can be seen as the main root of the problems of our modern communities, as it fails to keep up with the rest of the global ecosystem. Second, the way in which the hierarchy is structured is fragile – in a house of cards, if one card were to be taken away, the entire structure will collapse – and illustrated by the global financial crisis in 2007 – 2008 [1]. The use of monetary currency therefore correlates to the problems caused by the government. Therefore, before a new system that can evolve alongside the rapid changes in our community and ecosystem can be developed, the government system must recognize these changes. As such, the proposal will include the concept of resilience to alleviate the concerns regarding the present government and monetary values.

 

Furthermore, human-species are known to have unlimited desires causing concerns for resource use. The main causes of this desire is linked to the way in which our brain optimizes the use of dopamine, an organic chemical, via neurotransmitters to generate voluntary movement and is responsible for emotion-related behavior, particularly our sense of satisfaction [2]. The nature of dopamine is therefore related to the way in which we behave, learn and function as it influences the way in which we feel satisfied. This therefore creates the need to propose a reward system to help motivate the population to participate in their communities. However, it is important to acknowledge that our desire to be satisfied can cause cravings and addiction as we chase the ‘feel good’ effects of dopamine. Our system currently uses money as a form of reward to the population, but the implementation has blurred the lines between need and greed causing our inevitable downfall. The basic human instinct is to survive, and to survive we need food, water and shelter. However, the monetary system implies that we are not able to survive if we don’t have money to obtain these three basic needs, leading us to believe that money is good as it aids in our survival. Since money is associated to being good, we feel satisfied whenever we have an income, the release of dopamine. The danger of this system is that some individuals will grow addicted or desperate for this feeling of satisfaction, similar to the effects of sex and eating, leading to selfishness or greed. Those individuals in turn become more adept to surviving in a community that runs on money, thus creating the notion that greed is good. As illustrated, the concept of money distorts the definition of our needs for survival and redefines it as: we need money to survive, so money is good, more money means better survival, thus greed is good. This transition of definition has led us to the failures of our society, causing major eco-societal issues such as global warming, conflict and wealth disparities between the nations and its people. Further implicating the consideration of a new system, without money.

 

Lastly, daily life in modern society has been greatly influenced by recent advancements in technology whether it be for communication, travel, learning experiences or the way we eat. However, although many of these innovations can been seen as positive, by making our lives easier, we become accustomed to laziness and self-entitlement which limits the potential of both humans and our technology. Their effectiveness is therefore a paradox that causes inefficiency, a major contributor to the many societal issues that we face today. However, we will only focus on the main contributors to the proposed governing system of this article: Eco-Energy, Water Filtration Systems, DNA-Cloning, Biometrics and Lie Detectors. In this era, global warming has become the centre of debates concerning our society; although we currently have the technology to help remedy the consequences of the industrial period, the current governmental structure inhibits improvement. Our society is run and fueled by money, as such, if all electric appliances were powered by solar energy there would be a significant decrease in fossil fuel revenue. Carbon revenues alone generate approximately USD$28.3 billion in over forty countries annually [3] which can be used for human development, thus illustrating a current ‘need’ to rely on fossil fuels despite inevitable self-destruction. Our system has therefore defined solar panel implementation as ‘expensive’, even though objectively speaking, it is only expensive regarding monetary values, and is in fact cheaper for the environment and its inhabitants in the long-run. This reliance on monetary outcome creates a butterfly effect for the global population; those willing to become self-sustainable are prevented from doing so due to the expense of initial implementation in conjunction with other expenses, such as food and shelter, rendering them unable to afford the technology in the short-term. Other technological advancements, such as water filtration systems, also face similar issues for implementation. The proposal will therefore discuss the possibilities of incorporating them in the most efficient manner.   

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED MODEL

The Progress of Modern Technology

Eco-Energy

The modern advancement in technology has allowed us to create alternative sources of energy without carbon-based fuel such as; solar panels. Allowing us to reduce the amount of carbon released into our atmosphere decreases the effects of the greenhouse gas. Specifically, the development of photovoltaic technology (solar panels) has created a pivotal point for human civilization, as they can now be made to function with 100% efficiency. It can help shift our dependence on the limited resource of fossil fuel to the limitation of the sun’s lifetime, which is unknown and according to science, no species on Earth will survive without. The accomplishments of photovoltaics have even provided new gateways to remodel the way we shape both our infrastructure and society. Elon Musk, CEO and product architect of Tesla Inc., has taken strides that allow individuals to have a choice to be self-sustainable without hindering their daily routine. His innovative work, ranging from; solar panel roofing, electric vehicles, and the powerwall, illustrates how an individual can stop relying on the carbon resources currently implemented with claims that one is able to go “off grid” [4]. Recent studies have suggested that an average passenger vehicle emits 4.7 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year in the United States [5], however with the use of Tesla technology, that amount can be reduced from society’s annual carbon-footprint from vehicles alone. Nevertheless, other studies have attempted to debunk the idea of green vehicles by stating that electric cars are no better for the environment than ordinary gas-fueled cars as they’re powered by grid electricity. However, this argument is only true to the extent that electric vehicles are charged by grid powered stations; should they instead be charged by photovoltaic stations, this argument would cease to retain its validity. Additionally, natural phenomena are commonly known to damage grid infrastructure such as transmission lines which can cause an immediate power outage in communities, and sometimes nationwide outages. These blackouts can prolong these disruptions, but can be minimized by photovoltaics.

Water Filtration Technology

 

The progress of walter filtration systems, as clean water supply is considered as an essential need for survival, plays an important role in communities. In July 2010, The UN made it mandatory that all humans have the right to have access to clean water [6], however despite these efforts made, there are still millions of families incapable of doing so. In areas such as Tondo, Philippines, families are still required to pay for gallons of clean water to be delivered to their door due to poor infrastructure and planning. In an already struggling economy, these families use the majority of their below-minimum wage pay rate for a necessity that’s a basic human-right. However, technological advancement has made it possible for any individual to filter their own water, an example would be the Fill2Pure portable water filtration system. Each bottle has a small filtration device, that is claimed to clean any water by 99.99% [7]. These filtration bottles are growing in popularity amongst many travellers as part of their basic travel and camping kit, enabling individuals to safely drink from natural water sources such as rivers and lakes. This technology can essentially eliminate the need to excavate for new pipelines to provide for existing communities unable to fulfill their right to safe water. Not only does this benefit our society by lowering disruptive infrastructural costs, it also helps to lower the damage and alteration of the environment. Most urban dwellings have been constructed in close proximity to natural water such as the ocean; therefore these dwellings should focus in using this modern technology instead of implementing pipelines. They can be made to remain afloat on the water surface and reeled back for water needs. In addition to the portable filtration system, communities will be encouraged to install rainwater tanks, to maximise water access from natural sources. It should be noted that these filtration systems can be crucial in desperate conditions such as droughts, as they can directly filter water from the ocean for safe human use.

 

DNA-Cloning

 

DNA-cloning is another vital component to human progression by increasing food resources whilst limiting the negative consequences of eating food products. It is the process of generating multiple identical cells via genetic information [8]. Advancement in this field has provided proof that cloning is more possible than previously anticipated. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in USA approved the sale of cloned meat [9], creating a new solution to environmental problems caused by the increasing demand for meat exports. In Latin America, The Amazon has been reduced by approximately 40% due solely to the development of cattle ranches [10]. Plant life is the natural solution for carbon dioxide, plants take carbon dioxide and excrete oxygen during photosynthesis. It can therefore be concluded that constant deforestation in Latin America can catalyse global warming. The acknowledgement of this issue can shed light to the benefits of DNA-cloning as it provides us the opportunity to produce food ‘en masse’ without excessive deforestation. Furthermore, scientists can ensure that food related diseases are limited by manipulating the genetic makeup of cloned food. In 1986 the first case of Bovine Spongiform Encelaphalopathy (BSE) [11], or ‘Mad Cow Disease’, a neurodegenerative disease discovered to be transmittable to humans. By prioritising DNA-cloning, scientists can create food products that don’t contain harmful substances. This will reduce the likelihood of food-related diseases that cause widespread risk to the population. Additionally, they can also provide adequate food and nutrition to impoverished nations by mass cloning products such as Spirulina and Dulse. Both plants are now classified as a superfood that satisfy all nutritional needs except for vitamin D, which can be obtained by sun exposure or dairy products. Hawaiian Spirulina, as an example, contains (gram-gram): 180% more calcium than milk, 5100% more iron than spinach, 3100% more betacarotene than carrots, 670% more protein than tofu, and three grams of spirulina has more antioxidants and anti-inflammatory activity than five servings of fruit and vegetables [12]. Both are also known to have a long shelf life, if sealed and kept away from sun exposure; Spirulina can be stored for decades, and Dulse can be stored for up to two years.

 

Lie-Detection Technology

 

Any future innovation in the field of psychology and lie detection can be useful in assessing individuals who are given power. We have come to an age where individualism is encouraged and therefore what the leader may believe is right will almost certainly conflict with the interest of many. Deceit in our community can therefore leave room for abuse, especially by those in a state of power, as they have the excuse of ‘doing it for the good of the people’. Polygraphs can therefore be useful in determining if their belief is true to prevent deceit. The purpose of this is to ensure that the leaders follow through on their promise to work for the people, and not for their own personal interests. Although, as certain beliefs may conflict one another, the population could at-least feel reassured that the beliefs held by leaders are genuine to the extent that they’d try to help. At this current point in time, polygraphs are still prone to anomalies. The present concerns are related to research and testing, as many of the testees are assessed via mock situations [13] thus lowering the rate of accuracy. Polygraphs alone should be discouraged as a sole source of lie-detection as they can provide ‘false positives’, but it may be beneficial to consider them in conjunction with other methods. To improve the accuracy of lie-detection for choosing new leaders, the system will incorporate the use of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Taking into account the imperfect rate of accuracy of polygraphs, fMRI scans can indicate activity of the individuals’ amygdala [14]. The brain naturally lessens its activity in this area whenever an individual lies, and fMRI scans have also been proven to be accurate in the prediction that the certain individual will lie in the next scan [15]. However, when an individual has the tendency to lie, their brains naturally adjust and adapt to lower the activity in the amygdala causing issues when only scanning a small variant group of people. Studies suggest that when a small variant group is tested the accuracy rate of fMRI scans can be as poor as 60-65%, however when scanning a large variant group the tests show an almost perfect rate of 96%-100% [16]. Due to the nature of the proposed system, the variation of the test groups will be large as equal opportunity is given to the whole population when running for candidacy.

 

Biometric Technology

 

Biometric Technology is the modern way of authenticating individuals when accessing facilities, property and information. The field of biometrics aids the increasing amount of information our growing population possesses. Biometrics identify individuals via physiologically unique traits, including (but not limited to) fingerprints, facial structure, palm geometry and DNA. These measurements are useful due to their unique nature in being able to even distinguish between identical twins. Today biometrics are most commonly associated with the war on crime; detectives use fingerprint matches in crime-scenes and identify bodies with DNA samples. Another benefit of the use of biometrics is that we’re able to securely store sensitive data and access is limited to certain members of society, thus preventing fraudulent behaviour.

However, despite the increase in security measures, these can become the technology’s downfall. In 2005, Malaysia, biometric security had been introduced to vehicles such as the Mercedes-S-Class series, where the technology was used to enter and alter settings for the car. However, this led to a violent car theft where a gang removed the finger of the owner in order to steal his car [17]. Moreover, there are current moral conflicts regarding people’s privacy and right to their own identities. Safety measures will be encouraged to pacify these concerns as they’re necessary for increasing efficiency in the community, similar to the initial doubts regarding CCTV cameras (which are now generally accepted to help reduce crime despite intrusion of privacy).

 

The Governing Bodies

The United Nations Board (UNB)

In the proposition, the UN will continue their responsibilities under the title UNB. Each iteration of the UNB is contracted to serve for 5 years, with the potential to serve for an additional 5 years, to provide time for discussion and implementation. Many would argue that innovation is limited by the individual’s experience; thus, a maximum term of 10 years is enforced to allow the next generation to produce new ideas from their own perspective of modern society.

They’ll be responsible for legislating common law that applies to all states (nations), an example of which is the human-rights. The proposed legislations will go through a democratic review system by the global community. Post-legislation, they’ll be uploaded to the government site with detailed explanation (promoting transparency and equality) for the population to vote ‘good’ or ‘bad’. If majority reviews them ‘good’, the legislation becomes cemented and cannot be changed for a minimum of 5 years. This will provide time for analysis of effectiveness in conjunction with other possible consequences. If the vote were to deemed ‘bad’, the UNB will make amendments to be put forward for further reviewing. There’ll be an opportunity to include a relevant image and caption that’ll appear for reviewers on submission of review, with the purpose of conveying the importance of the situation. For example, if the UNB were still battling to concretise the human right for access to food and water, they could include a photo of a malnutritioned family with a caption of ‘you can help millions of lives’ after clicking the ‘bad legislation’ button. If they’d like to continue, they can confirm. Although text information has the ability to provide more details, people respond more honestly through visualisation – ‘a sense of realness’ [18]. The following generation will be briefed on the results, and the ability to amend and/or repeal the relevant legislation is allowed. However, if ‘positive’ legislation is seen to have immediate detrimental effects, it’ll be crucial for the UNB to make immediate amendments. The system will acknowledge the importance of maintaining current human and animal rights, unless improvements can be made.

Due to the nature of the UNB, consisting of General National State of Representatives (GNSR), its members will be appointed seats from the procedures of the GNSR voting system. The existing UNB has the additional responsibility of interviewing the viable candidates for the position of GNSR. To maintain their seats, the UNB will be subjected to pass a bi-annual psychometric evaluation using lie-detection technology.

 

The General National State Representative (GNSR)

 

The UNB consists of GNSRs, who individually have equivalent power to presidents. The title of ‘National State Representative’, however, will be given to the different UN Councils. Each GNSR, as a member of the UNB, will present complexities faced by their nation. These will be discussed, with the intent of raising awareness and finding reasonable solutions. Their main responsibilities are maintaining the wellbeing of their constituents, and managing international affairs. The GNSR has the power to create national laws within their country, so long as those laws don’t breach common laws established by the UNB. Breaching common legislation results in the offending GNSR being placed on trial.

GNSRs have the right to make final decisions regarding resource allocation within their national jurisdiction after considering the concerns of Industry Representatives, Local Governors of State, and the population.

It’s important to recognise that although the GNSR mandates the final decisions, they aren’t by any means ‘above’ their community. The power lies with the population; thus the GNSR works for the people by providing them with an educated service for resource allocation.  

The appointment for the seat of GNSR will require computer systems for voting from the population. Candidacy is available to anyone in the nation, however a points system is created to determine the most suitable candidates. The categories credited are:

 

  1. IQ Tests
  2. Evidence of Local and International Community Aid
  3. Academic Achievements
  4. Company/Industry Position
  5. Past Government Experience
  6. Police Check (charged crimes can be evaluated and discussed by the ICJ)

 

The shortlisted candidates will go through a truth-test using polygraphs and fMRI scans, where they’ll be asked questions regarding their intent and method to improve their community. The leading individuals will be asked to submit a profile and accompanying proposal for the government website that can include text, one internally produced 5-minute video, and photos to showcase themselves and background. Psychologists will confirm the integrity of the information provided by matching the results of their character analysis via truth-tests, with the power to disqualify on failure. The approved candidates will have their profiles uploaded publicly for voting. One vote is allocated for individuals within the voting age requirement, and is verified using biometric technology within their electronic devices. The top three candidates will then be presented to the UNB, who will require a majority vote to choose the next GNSR of that country. The GNSR will also undergo a bi-annual truth-test.

 

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

 

The ICJ will remain intact for the purpose of settling disputes between multiple GNSR, UN Behaviour Consultant (UNBC) and the UNB. Similar to the current ICJ, the court will comprise fifteen judges selected by the UNB, and decisions will be made through majority votes [19]. They’ll also be responsible for cementing and notarising common laws implemented by the UNB. If a GNSR or UNBC breaches common law, the ICJ has the power to determine the punishment appropriate to their actions. The punishment can range from a public warning, to immediate replacement, or imprisonment. The ICJ doesn’t have jurisdiction over laws of individual national state, however if members of the IR or LGS are reported to have breached common law, the ICJ has the right to question the governance of the GNSR. Additionally, they’re responsible for choosing the UNBC members.

Every chosen member of the ICJ will go through a truth-test before being granted a seat.

 

The United Nations Behaviour Consultant (UNBC)

 

The UNBC will be responsible for monitoring the actions of the GNSR, Vice-National Representatives (VNSR), Industry Representatives (IR) and the Local Governor of State (LGS), without disrupting their actions. It’ll be encouraged that the UNBC refrain from having personal contact with the other members of government. If any breaches to common law arise, the UNBC reports the person responsible to the ICJ with sufficient evidence, who in turn confronts the offenders or bring them forward to the UNB. The purpose of the UNBC is to prevent corruption and abuse of power. To be appointed the position, the candidate will be assessed using the following points system:

 

  1. Experience in Legal Affairs
  2. Experience in the UN Organisation
  3. Academic Achievements
  4. Police Check
  5. Truth-Test

 

The leading candidates will be interviewed and the next UNBC will be chosen by the ICJ. UNBCs are truth-tested after every allegation of misconduct.

 

Industry Representatives (IR)

 

Our leading innovators have been vastly disregarded in terms of governance, despite improving many aspects of our lives. For example, Elon Musk is known for his innovation in the field of  photovoltaic technology [20], and Bill Gates is a co-founder of Microsoft, which caters for various technological needs of the population [21]. With their apparent potential for contribution to society in mind, the proposal includes one leader to represent each industry. Eligibility for the position will be determined by:

 

  1. IQ Test
  2. Company Position
  3. Academic Achievements
  4. Truth-Test

 

The top candidates are submitted for voting, but is limited to the workers of their respective industries. Candidates are required to pass a truth-test for integrity purposes. The IR is responsible for making executive decisions on behalf of their given industry within the country. This includes research focus, and legislations such as work safety.  

 

Local Governor of State (LGS)

 

The LGS will oversee the affairs within their state, for example California (USA). They can create state laws, on the condition that they don’t breach common or national laws. The IR and LGS will be encouraged to build a strong professional relationship, and have equal weight in terms of power. It’s important to note that the LGS is focused on the macro-aspects of environment and city planning, however can provide executive orders to the local governing bodies where required. The LGS will administer guidelines for environmental development within their jurisdiction, both human settlements and natural landscapes. Resource allocation within the state will be carried out by the LGS using their allocated budget. Individuals applying for the position is determined with points in the following categories:

 

  1. IQ Test
  2. Evidence of Local and International Community Aid
  3. Past Government Experience
  4. Academic Achievements
  5. Truth-Test

The citizens of the state vote via biometric electronic devices.

 

Vice-National Representatives (VNSR)

 

The role of VNSRs is to help the GNSR with their decision-making. They don’t have power over the other bodies of government, their main purpose is to research and acknowledge the concerns of the GNSR. There are two ways in which an individual can be appointed to the position:

 

  1. Chosen by the GNSR from the other top candidates
  2. Recommendation from the UNB

 

Each GNSR will be required an even number of VNSRs, with total number depending on the population of the nation, and with a minimum of two VNSRs to each GNSR. It is vital to have an equal number to inhibit manipulation (if there was only one), or exclusion of the last individual (if there were three). This ensures that the GNSR will either have a majority vote or equal numbers during disputes, giving them the authority to make an executive decision. The VNSRs will serve the same term as the GNSR.

 

Head of State Industry (HSI)

 

Similar to the roles played by the IR, the HSI will help regulate affairs within their designated industry. However, their jurisdiction lies within their own state; thus, legislations cannot contradict or breach those imposed by the IR. Nevertheless, they’re an important part of the government as they provide a professional voice for their local constituents. They’ll also be in close contact with the Local Government Counselors and Local Councils as their focus is on local affairs regarding city development and planning. The HSI will allocate resources within their state of jurisdiction, however they don’t have control over the budget provided by the LGS. Regardless, they’re able to propose focus for their industry. The position will be determined using a similar method as the IR, although the vote will also be focused within their state.

 

Local Government Counselor (LGC)

 

The LGC will be appointed as the head of local council (LC), meaning they only have jurisdiction within their precinct. They’re required to make final decisions only in regards to precinct strategic development, which in turn makes them responsible for resource allocation of provided budget within their council. The LGC won’t have the power to create new laws, however they can impose regulations fitting the infrastructural needs of their precinct. Furthermore, they’re encouraged to participate in community interaction to provide educated leadership in accordance with the needs of the population. They’ll be required to facilitate human interaction between the other members of government, such as the LC, HSI and the community. The voting for the position of LGC will be held only within the relevant council. The candidates will be determined for eligibility according to a points system with the following categories:

 

  1. Evidence of Local and International Community Aid
  2. Government Experience
  3. Relative Industry Experience
  4. Academic Achievements
  5. Truth-Test

 

Local Council (LC)

 

The LC will serve as the main body for city development. They’ll coordinate research in the elements of their precinct, including but not limited to; the opinions of the citizens, level of soil erosion, and quality of local transport. The LC are the main designers and planners for their local precinct, involving projects such as increasing green landscapes. Furthermore, the LC will be encouraged to participate and engage with the community regularly in order to ensure they grasp deep understanding of their city’s needs. Due to the nature of their responsibilities, the LC may also approach the HSI for project proposals and issues if required. For example, if the HSI of Transportation were to implement a new highway to connect two major cities, the LCs that’ll be affected can express their concerns and present proposed adjustments or alternative designs. The LC will therefore need prior experience within urban planning industries and will be elected through:

 

  1. Past Experience
  2. Evidence of Local and International Community Aid
  3. Academic Achievements

 

The top candidates will be interviewed and granted the position by the human resource department.

 

Department Representative (DR)

 

To increase transparency between the government body and inhabitants, businesses that aren’t involved with governance are encouraged to designate an employee representative (DR) who will provide information regarding their concerns. The representative will contribute their insight to discussions regarding issues and proposals that could affect their community, raising awareness in the council. They’ll be the liaison between their co-workers and their LC. However, the propositions will only be for the benefit of the community that they interact with, on issues such as social tensions and environmental landscapes. Intentions for business strategizing are deemed out of scope for the DR. For example, an agriculture company may need to vocalise concerns regarding changes in soil pH caused by neighbouring polluters, thus not only affecting their crops but damaging the environment as a whole. The DR will act as a bridge of communication to the LC, who carry out tests and research to find the extent to which the pollution can affect the landscapes. If required, the council can rectify the situation through implementing planning procedures and raise their concerns to other governmental bodies. Eligibility for the position will be determined by:

 

  1. IQ Test
  2. Majority Votes (within the company)

 

Department Boards (DB)

 

The DB will be added to the government body as they have the tendency to have the most varied group of individuals. They’ll only have legislative jurisdiction in their micro-community, for example the board of owners in an apartment building, but can’t breach any of the given laws. However, many of these individuals have concerns that may affect their wider community and therefore it’s important to work closely with the DR. As an example, there’s been an increase in the need to build high-rise buildings that essentially leads to gated communities. With this in mind, matters regarding isolation of community may need to be handled by the LC. Adequate transportation in a populous area may have been overlooked, or a need to increase artificial light in certain areas for night-time safety.  

 

United Nations State Quarters (UNSQ)

 

The UNSQ will be a designated facility for the functioning of the UNB within each nation of the system. The facility will be responsible for managing information submitted to the UNB from the other bodies of government of the host nation, and similar recurring issues of each which will be brought forward to the UNB for discussion. It’ll also be used as the main hub for hosting these discussions, and each session will change national location to increase security of the board. Leaking of information, such as the location of meetings, will be deemed as a criminal act and punished according to the laws for endangering political parties.

 

United Nations Information and Survey Collectors (UNISC)

 

The UNISC will manage incoming information and surveys for the attention of the UNB. The data handled by the UNISC will be taken directly from the population and the Exceptional Citizens of Influence. Examples of this include reviews for common legislative laws, and proposals from the wider community. It’s important to ensure that there’s a UNISC group available for each nation. Although the information gathered may seem redundant, as transparency between the government body and the inhabitants is strongly promoted, it may be used to clarify issues as well as prevent government bodies from distorting information.

 

Exceptional Citizens of Influence (ECI)

 

The members of the ECI will be considered as the most influential people of non-government bodies. There’ll be fifteen allocated seats for each nation, chosen by points credited from community engagement categories, including (in order of weight):

 

  1. International Aid
  2. Local Aid
  3. Company Position

 

This will be implemented due to the recognition of individuals choosing to spend lives working in charities having practical knowledge of the needs of the environment and its inhabitants. This also provides an opportunity for the less fortunate, such as those who struggle academically, to have a strong voice of opinion – the benefit of this being that we see representation from a more broad spectrum within the community. For instance, an individual who has spent thirty years building basic infrastructure for charity will have better aptitude for recognising global issues than an individual who is academically accomplished in accounting. Appointment of seats will be done by random selection using computer software, calculating points accumulated from the categories. Individuals chosen will be given the option to participate, and if they refuse, the next viable candidate will be chosen. The ECI will serve a two-year term, and will be unable to participate in the next term unless there are no other individuals with equal or more points.

 

The Proposed Merit-Point System (MPS)

 

The progress and prioritisation of modern technology will diminish the need for resource trading due to self-sustainability, with the potential to make money redundant (explained later). A new merit system should be implemented, taking into account what we’ve learned from experience with reliance on money. By eliminating the need for money to provide products and services, it can be expected that in the long-run civilisation can discard the monetary concept, but merits can still be used as a motivational inducer. The main premise of MPS is to reward individuals for their contribution to our socio-economic global system; each activity is assigned a different number of points according to the importance of the role for the progression of society and the environment. Each industry will be placed in categories of importance (as an example):

 

Industry
A Construction and Development
Healthcare and Social Assistance
Education and Training
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
Transport, Postal and Warehousing
Public Administration and Safety
B Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services
Administrative and Support Services
Manufacturing
Wholesale Trade
Information Media and Telecommunications
Financial and Insurance Services
C Hospitality
Retail Trade
Arts and Recreational Services
D Other Services
Rental, Hiring & Real Estate Services

 

Industries categorised in the top segment, A, will be awarded more points than individuals who work in category B, and so on. Points are equal for all industries in the same category. Additionally, different positions in the industry will also be rewarded according to their positions, i.e. CEOs are regarded with more importance than an intern. The classification of the positions could be outlined using a numbered approach:

 

Job Class Hierarchy
Position No. Title Equivalents
1 Chief Executive Officer
2 Chief Operating Officer CCO, CFO, CTO, CIO, CKO, CIO, CDO, CSO, CHR, CMO, CAO, CUEO, CIPO, CSO
3 President
4 Executive Vice President
5 Senior Vice President
6 Vice President
7 Assistant Vice President
8 Associate Vice President
9 Senior Director
10 Director
11 Assistant Director
12 Human Resource Manager
13 Manager
14 Employees
15 Temporary Employees
16 Part-Time Employees
17 Contingent Employees

 

The ladder structure will incentivise hard work in order to earn more points. All equivalent positions in similar categories will earn the same number of points, enabling the alleviation of society from major social disparities. The merit points allocated to each individual may still be used to purchase luxury goods if they desire.

Due to the development of modern technology, ‘costs’ for production to satisfy nutritional needs is minimal and therefore the government will fulfil the human-rights to food and water by including (at a minimum) Spirulina or Dulse with every pay, as an example, for participation in society. This eliminates the stress of purchasing enough food to live a healthy life. If an individual would like to purchase more superfluous or non-essential food such as chicken, they may do so for a certain number of points, and the advancement in DNA-cloning should’ve decreased the ‘price’ correspondingly. That individual may also choose to donate their right, for that period, to the nutritional plants to give to struggling communities, as they’re easily stored and have a long shelf-life. A small number of merit-points will also be rewarded per registered donation.

If citizens are self-sustainable through the implementation of eco-energy and water filtration, freedom is given, to an extent, of choice for the expenditure of the lower-earning population’s income. The goal of this is to help alleviate the rising prevalence of depression in individuals. Our cities today were developed to facilitate the opportunity of choice; as new avenues became possible humans became obsessed with having more choice, it initially led to more freedom and happiness. However, choice has a paradoxical effect on the human mind, as too much choice can lead to as much dissatisfaction as having no choice [22]. Take Netflix, for example, which has created a platform to provide thousands of shows for a single person to watch, however choosing one show can be daunting as the individual will naturally consider the opportunity cost of watching one show and missing out on another. This may at times cause analysis paralysis, wherein the person uses an inordinate amount of time to choose, only to find themselves incapable to decide. The trend of providing a surplus of choice can be correlated positively with the mentally struggling population as the socio-economic disparity continues to grow. Those who have money have too much to choose from, while those without enough money lack the opportunity to make choices for basic survival. The new system will attempt to find a balance, although research suggests that around USD$75,000 per year in the monetary system is the perfect number [23].

Furthermore, the system will acknowledge all community participation to amplify the effects of Public Service Motivation (PSM). PSM is the measure of individual public performance, it accounts for the individual’s analysis of the significance of their contributions [24]. This leads to another source of depression, as many find themselves questioning the purpose of their duties, stuck in a cyclical routine, catalysing feelings of anger and violence (‘going postal’) [25]. This is also linked to the ever-growing unemployment rate, with numbers rising from 197.7 million in 2016 to 201.1 million in 2017 globally [26], due to the lack of satisfaction from jobs that can be achieved elsewhere, such as computer games [27]. It is therefore important to ensure that each member of society attains a sense of both achievement and significance to generate an adequate level of satisfaction. The MPS will therefore encourage involvement even with entry-level jobs to help improve communities, such as street-sweeping. The number of merit-points given to those participating in ‘unskilled’ jobs will still be enough to travel once in every two years (if they work an eight hour shift daily). Jobs will be encouraged to be a daily biometrically-registered task and rewarded merit-points in accordance to supervised performance. This promotes the sense of choice, allowing citizens to break out of their routine, whilst given the motivation to acquire enough points to travel or purchase luxurious goods. However, professional jobs should be discouraged from taking leave during crucial times, and are limited only to those qualified.

Additionally, MPS will acknowledge the work of individuals who participate in charity to promote global equity, unity and community engagement. There’s irony in the way our modern society’s economies promote freedom and self-significance, whilst simultaneously inhibiting opportunities to achieve it. For example, a humanitarian may possess the desire to travel to foreign states for charity, however despite the relative ease of travel they are limited by the costs. The individual is required to pay for their own travel fees, accommodation, food, and other expenses, thus limiting the opportunity to help our global community to only those who are financially stable (who have been mentioned to have the tendency, albeit not certainty, to be greedy). This emphasises the way our current system limits the potential of our global community by promoting the benefits of being selfish, leaving selfless people feeling insignificant. If merit-points are implemented, it’ll reward these individuals for their efforts to help in improving global equity and unity. This may also change the trend of unemployment, as everyone is given the option to travel if they were to work in charity, deterring them from the artificial satisfaction obtained from computer games. They’ll not only be rewarded by merit-points, but also with the sense of freedom from travelling, combined with the satisfaction gained from self-significance and purpose for our global community. It could be argued that this may discourage people from completing higher education, and therefore the system will ensure that annual merit-points for professionals, such as scientists and engineers, will remain significantly more than those who choose to live a life of charity work. The main aim of MPS, despite some similarities to money, is to provide an equal opportunity for all inhabitants of our global community.

 

 

ARGUMENTATION FOR THE MODEL

 

Resilience and the Network of Power

 

 

Resilience Diagram

The concept of resilience was initially defined as the ability of which an object or system

 

can return to it’s normal state after stimulation of outside stressors, however the definition soon evolved when tackling the issues of urban planning as the complex socio-

 

ecological system shouldn’t rely on ‘bouncing back’ to the

 

previous ‘normal’ state. The reason for which is that if the system failed to take precautionary action towards the stressor, then it would mean that it failed as a system due to its vulnerability to that stressor. Resilience was then redefined as the ability of complex socio-ecological systems to change, adapt and transform to create a new stabilised [normal] state and continues to function at full potential [28]. The model of the government should therefore be structured in a similar manner to consider the unpredictable nature of our global socio-economic system. This can be done by placing the main stressor of our society, the inhabitants and the environment, in the centre of the governing system (shown below).

Resilient Network_Flow of Information

The proposed government design is based on the model of resilience, and illustrates the cohesive nature of the socio-economic structure. The centralisation of the inhabitants and the environment is necessitated by the imperative to address issues of the global ecosystem whilst limiting self-indulgence, by emphasising the symbiotic nature of the relationships. It promotes transparency and cooperation between the elements in the presence of stressors, thus merging the global community through; equalisation of core values, consolidating trust, distribution of accountability and protection against abuse.

 

As the leading species, it is our responsibility to ensure the wellbeing of our eco-system. It is becoming more evident that humans, despite being the ‘dominant’ species, are vulnerable to the consequences of our own self-entitlement. As such, the number of natural ‘disasters’ continues to increase at an alarming rate. Firstly, the labelling of natural phenomena as ‘disasters’ highlights the current misleading reputation of human importance over the environment; despite the natural presence of cyclones, as an example, they are referred to as a ‘disaster’, as they sometimes collide with humans and their infrastructure. Cyclones are natural results of wind accumulation (produced by movement) and waters exceeding 26.5 degrees celsius, but the increasing prevalence is a result of global warming [29], further indicating human-driven consequences. By shifting the core values from human importance to the general environment, and its inhabitants, the system can remedy these effects while raising the awareness of the population.

 

The redistribution of accountability, from the desires of the individuals in power to the needs of the environment (and inhabitants), will facilitate equal positive change to our global communities. The recognition of a symbiotic relationship is vital to progress to a united socio-eco-system, as it shifts the power of decision-making based on the results of certain actions to cater to needs and new desires. Although legislative decisions are made by the UNB, GNSR and ICJ, these are made for the benefit of the whole. It is important to note that it will be impossible to administer an immediate solution for everything, and thus the incorporation of a ‘creative destruction’ and ‘reconstruction’ phase is important, as it provides room for trial and error. Since the future decisions are made with their consequences top-of-mind, it holds the inhabitants accountable for their reaction, to provide guidance, while those in government are responsible for finding possible solutions and assessing their viability. Additionally, the progress of technology will allow an equal voice and opportunity for the population who will be accountable for their choice of leaders in their community; promoting diversity in innovative thinking. The uncertainties of life can cause panic within the community as unforeseeable stressors can display faults in the way we perceive the current state of the system, thus innovation should be accepted from the variant minds of individuals. This emphasises the need for resilience, as it provides flexibility for adaptation and function. The processes are designed to react instead of imposing certain ‘needs’ or desires.   

 

The suggested reorganisation of the government elements can also help identify miscommunication or abusive behaviour through its interconnectivity. For example; the problems of soil erosion can be voiced from the centre (the inhabitants) and studied by the LC. Were man-made construction nevertheless to proceed in the areas of critical soil erosion, the accountable party can be identified through a process of elimination; in this case the HSI who implements the procedure responds to the budget given by the LGS, who in turn responds to the demands made by the GNSR, holding them accountable for this decision. However, if it is evident that the GNSR demanded focus on soil restoration, this highlights miscommunication of the demand, showing that the LGS should be accountable for budget allocation to the HSI, and so on. This is where transparency through cohesion and interconnectivity holds its value as it clarifies the areas of fault or success.

Furthermore, the inclusion of lie-detection technology (in conjunction with the UNBC) will prevent misdirection caused by the leading governing bodies. These components together can help assess the actions of the leaders which can then be brought to the attention of the UNB and ICJ who have the power to evaluate said actions. The inhabitants will also be informed and have the power to react. These precautionary measures therefore help to build trust and insight between the government body and the inhabitants, accentuating the symbiotic nature of the system. The technological advancement in the field of psychology and detection of truth is therefore a crucial element to the system when choosing a new leader. It strays away from the present where the top 1% of those in power have the tendency to remain in power, due to monetary advantages alongside social network, and thus have a better opportunity to continue deceitful actions. Furthermore, the benefit of using both polygraphs and fMRI will help decrease anxiety in regards to their political leaders and their true intentions.

 

The Decision-Making Capacity

 

The proposal will provide equal platforms for voicing concerns,  affecting the capacity to make decisions. The main concern lies in the prioritisation of importance, but this task is managed by having open communication with the population and subsequent evaluation by the governing bodies. The emphasis on the reactionary cognition of the system means that the government bodies aren’t able to raise personal issues, and can only react to the output of the centre (inhabitants and environment). The need for government efficiency is therefore crucial, especially during times of crisis, and implementation of decisions cannot be disrupted. Nevertheless, it is important to provide a balance as excess freedom in legislation can lead to abusive behaviour.

The aforementioned legislation will be created by the UNB with regards to the demands of the system centre. These legislations will be reviewed by the ICJ, who will authorise the legislations. On it’s own this can be prone to abusive behaviour, however when used in conjunction with community feedback, the UNB is able to amend the legislations and re-submit them to progress through the cycle again. The system therefore allows legislations to be made with transparency, and functions in a similar resilient reactionary manner. It should be noted that a feedback system is to be developed within each nation for assessing success once they have been passed into law.

 

Resources and Financing

 

The progress and prioritisation of modern technology will diminish the need for resource trading, moving us towards the redundancy of money. As previously discussed, by optimising the potential of technology, human civilisation’s self-sustainability is attainable. Any food or natural product can be locally produced via DNA-cloning, eliminating the export and deforestation needs for such resources. Energy needs will be met by natural resources, such as the sun, limiting the demand for fossil fuels (oil) which will in turn reduce carbon emissions. Additionally, clean water will also be accessible directly from natural sources due to the availability of filtration devices, reducing the need for excessive excavation and the effects of drought. In conclusion, the combination of the variant technological advances, along with their prioritisation, can redefine the ‘need’ for money by decreasing the need for trade of goods and services.

DNA-cloning can mitigate the mounting issues regarding the global environment, specifically deforestation and transportation. The benefit of having the ability to locally produce any product also limits the need for transportation of goods, thus also preventing incidents such as oil spills. However it should be noted that DNA-cloning should be limited to food products such as steak and not of whole living organisms, with the exception of helping repopulate endangered animals. The main concern regarding DNA cloning is how we perceive the cloned products with our moral framework of the creation of life. Despite the foreseeable benefits, most of the population is repelled by the idea of consuming products such as steak that have been genetically created in a laboratory, usually for no reason other than what they consider the ‘ick’ factor. This may have been due to the way society has advertised lab research and its uncertainties, though this reasoning is quite contradictory as one in every ten Americans turn to psychiatric drugs such as antidepressants [30], all of which are genetically formulated in laboratories. Nevertheless, DNA-cloning can cause positive change in our global community as they can also generate food according to direct demand thus inhibiting the billions of tonnes of food wastage in our global community.

The advancement in photovoltaics should also be prioritised in communities as it can lead us to independence whilst also aiding in the restoration of the environment. The proposed system will therefore substitute our current use of grid energy with sustainable equivalents. The transition, as many will argue, will be quite difficult as many factories that would produce such products remain reliant on fossil fuels, however the government will prioritise the remodelling of factories to become self-sufficient first, before proceeding to mass production, by altering the factory usage of fossil fuels to eco-energy. Furthermore, with our ability to create solar powered cars and boats, the government will be sure to have the ability to replace other, larger modes of transport for eco-friendly transportation, such as planes, in the near future creating the possibility of self-sustainable global society.

 

It should, however, be remembered that the current leading nations have reached this stasis due to their industrial phases (‘creative destruction’). The problems only persist because these nations are disregarding the possibility of self-sustenance through the continuation of past needs, thus endangering the global community by inhibiting the ‘reconstruction’ phase. If they would instead move forward, they could allow the developing nations to blossom in a similar way. Global financing should therefore be focused on the development and implementation of the mentioned technology to reconstruct our environment, the opportunity cost of which is the reduction of income earned by the rich. Upon reaching a level of self-sustainability, the system can shift its ‘creative destruction’ to the nations in need, who in the future can follow. This forces the financial burden to assess the true cost of self-sustainable implementation and will be distributed to all nations, a sense of global retrofitting. This procedure can then ensure that the globalisation of technology will benefit the future of the environment, including its inhabitants, instead of just the privileged human population.  

 

It is equally important to acknowledge the amount of data that will be stored electronically, thus High Performance Computers (HPCs) are required. Since 1993, the calculative power of computers has increased by an average of one thousand times every ten years [31] not to mention that the fastest computer in the world today has the ability to perform 54.9 quadrillion points of calculation per second (54.9 petaFLOPS) [32]. This progress in the field of HPCs is vital to the way that we approach our future governing systems, as it benefits not only humans but the entire global ecosystem in countless ways. One possibility is the complete elimination of the need for paper; currently information is being transferred digitally, thus reducing the environmental stress of deforestation. The prioritisation of photovoltaic technology may accentuate these effects by reducing the need for fossil fuels without hindering our use of electronic devices. Moreover, the progress in HPCs will essentially lead to the improvement of smaller electronic devices as we obtain a better understanding of computer manufacturing, allowing them to become a reliable platform for data storage and use in society. So while society reduces deforestation, enabling the maintenance or increase of plant life, we also reduce carbon emissions to help alleviate the effects of global warming.

 

The Merit System

 

The main aim of the merit system, despite having some similar properties to money, is to provide equity of opportunities amongst the inhabitants. Travel, as previously mentioned, is important for a global community as it provides psychological benefits to the individuals, causing positive globalisation. Such benefits include:

 

  1. Confidence: exploring unfamiliar territory can cause feelings of uncertainty, and therefore necessitates the development of self-confidence through experience. This increase in tolerance to uncertainties can also be beneficial for coping with the individual’s daily concerns in life, leading to positive attitude and aptitude.  

 

  1. Adaptation: travelling requires planning, however plans don’t always go smoothly, thus encouraging flexibility in the individual. This will benefit the community as individuals will be more apt to the nature of change.
  1. Creativity: going outside of the mental comfort zone can trigger development of new neural pathways in the brain due to the unfamiliar activities experienced by both body and mind; promoting mental growth. This also improves the possibility for individual innovation, providing a gateway to solutions if an unknown problem arises.

 

  1. Stress Release: travel is commonly used to escape the cyclical daily stress of life, and stepping outside of the cycle can help in the appreciation of life and its many elements. The comfort of having the ability to break out of a cycle is beneficial to the community, as it prevents the reduction in motivation, and emotions regarding self-insignificance.  

 

  1. Communication: our global community consists of many languages and cultural practices, which has a history of leading to conflicts. Experiencing an environment that is different from your own can improve your communicative abilities as you learn how to interact despite language or cultural barriers. Even communicating in order to simply find a ‘good’ restaurant can help improve body language and understanding of culture. Through the learnings gained from communication, the global community can learn to better acquainted with one another.

 

  1. Perception: experiencing unfamiliar culture helps us to understand common issues and provides a different perspective from an individual’s ‘normal’ daily issues. Recognising similar struggles also helps to provide a sense of community, despite being in a different landscape or cultural practice. This therefore helps to bridge the differences between cultures to inhibit cultural segregation through increasing awareness.

 

The importance of promoting travel can therefore be beneficial not only for the individual but also the global socio-economic ecosystem. Furthermore, the MPS should help with motivating the unemployed with its ability to induce PSM, essentially optimising the human resources. However it is important to note that transition to the merit system will rely on the prioritisation of self-sustainability through our technological advancements.

 

REFERENCES

 

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Written by Kevin Jatney Magalona

The Utopia to be pursued by The Oreb in The City in Chains

Shadows

Fear,

It hath no mercy.

Fear,

Lingering above me

As darkness scour along the plastered walls, like the tides of sea.

A sea of shadows, crashing along the shores of my spirit.

Taking everything, but my fears.

It’s as if I’ve stumbled upon an abyss

Exposed to nothing but the shadow of me.

A shadow of me.

My shadow.

Me.

 

Chasing

The person who I used to be

Chasing.

Hopelessly

Screaming questions that can never be answered truthfully.

Yet these screams continue to fill my head, echoing through these hollow grounds.

Taking over everything, but these fears.

Walking along the planes of darkness,

A solitary martyr marches forward, shadowed by me.

A shadow of me.

My shadow.

Me.

 

Anger

Whispers, softly.

Anger

Smiles at me benevolently.

“Don’t worry my child,” she said, “As you can see

I am still with thee, so please do not leave me be.

I will fight these fears that scare thee.

Through darkness or dismay

I shall walk with thee for eternity.

I’ll be there, like a shadow.”

My shadow…

Me.

 

Ryoki Faoltiama – The City in Chains

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